Monday, June 18, 2012

The Three Dynasty Kingdom of Old Batak in Sumatra

Batak civilization in Sumatra  began in nearly  3.000 years ago, through the course of a long history as a race Proto Malay (Melayu Tua) who have a religion, customs, traditions, science and philosophy are high. This Batak tribe has its own cultural characteristics on the traditions, customs, art houses, carvings, music, language, alphabet, calendar and astronomical knowledge.

History of Ancient Batak (Old Toba) in Sumatra notes that there were three royal dynasty that united the various ethnic groups who have links with some of the tribes of South India, rural Myanmar (Burma) - Thailand and Tibet, which previously had inhabited the island of Sumatra on century BC (1500 + BC). The leader among leaders (Primus Interpares) formed a dynasty that united tribal clans, kingdoms tribe in the country (up to Aceh) and  kings of Marga and King Huta.

The three dynasty are:

1. Dynasty Sori Mangaraja
This dynasty led by hereditary king Sori Mangaraja (adapted from Sri Maharaj).  Sori Mangaraja crown counsel, Batara Guru, a character from South India. This dynasty existed for 300-500  years, since the 7th century AD (or the 9th century AD) until the beginning of the 12th century AD.
Capital of the kingdom in the Lobu Tua, Barus and Pansur as a port city and commercial center of the world.  During the period, this dynasty built civilization and high culture and advanced. Dynasty ended by a devastating war between the Kingdom of Chola, India with Srivijaya in the region.

2. Dynasty Hatorusan
Dynasty  triumphed for nearly 300 years since the beginning of the 13th century AD until the beginning of the 16th century AD led by a hereditary king who holds the King Hatorusan I-VII. The first king, Uti Mutiaraja, derived from the descendants of Guru Tatea Bulan, Pusuk Buhit.  Dynasty is trying to reorganize and continue the tradition and glory of the royal dynasty Sori Mangaraja. Capital of the Kingdom in Barus and then moved inland on the border region of Aceh.  Camphor and kemenyaan remain as a source of income that are traded in the port royal Pansur, Barus. This dynasty then gave the reins of power to the royal dynasty of the State Sisingamangaraja Bakara.

3. Dynasty Sisingamangaraja
This dynasty existed for 400 + years, since the 1500's until 1907.  State governmental center in Bakara, under the leadership of King Sisingamangaraja I - XII. The kingdom and the people faced the war during 30 year against the Dutch who tried to conquer the Land of Batak.  The dynasty ended with the death of the last Sisingamangaraja, Ompu Patuan Bosar Sinambela (Ompu Pulo Batu) in the heroic battle at Si Onom Hudon 1907. Also killed in the battle were two of his sons, Patuan Nagari and Patuan Anggi, and his beloved daughter Lopian.

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Seven Heirlooms of the Kingdom

According to the history, King Sisingamangaraja-I met his uncle (Tulang) of a powerful character named Raja Uti, in Manduamas, Barus. To be able to holding a meeting, Sisingamangaraja have to face a series of hurdles and tests. Blessing strength, supernatural powers and ingenuity, he can pass through it, and then a few things "unique" and "rare" as the requirements that must be provided and shown Sisingamangaraja can be met. 

Raja Uti finally convinced that these objects royal heritage of the ancestors of King Batak (unggasan) be passed on to the next generation that actually has revealed. He said to Sisingamangaraja, "That the heirlooms are entrusted to me as the will and the power Ompu Mulajadi Na Bolon through the path of righteousness. If it should be delivered to you as the successor, please get it by yourself through prayer (tonggo) to Ompu Mulajadi Na Bolon." 

After King Sisingamangaraja completion pray (martonggo) , then comes the heirlooms in front of him, namely: 

  1. Piso Solam Debata (Piso Gaja Dompak), a knife-edged sword, with a carved elephant head on the handle. 
  2. Hujur Siringis (Hujur Sitonggo Mual), a small spear to open my eyes water. 
  3. Tuntuman Sutora Malam, beautiful woven silk shawl, as the royal clothing. 
  4. Ulos Sande Huliman, or Tali-tali or Detar, shawl (named Ulos)wrapped around the head as a crown. 
  5.  Lage Silintong Pinartaraoang Omas or Lage Omas Si Pitu Lampis, seven-layered mats as mat prayer, decorated with gold
  6. Tabu-tabu Sitarapullang, a jar of water where a panacea. "Tabu-tabu sitarapullang, ia sian i dalanna ro,  tu si dalanna somuang," meaning jar sitarapullang, from where it came from there also came that way again. 
  7. Gaja Puti, a white elephant endangered species, only the great kings who have it. 
Heirlooms are brought back into Bakara, as the treasure of Kingdom of Sisingamangaraja. And Land of Bakara become a capital of a new Kingdom in Batak Toba Tribe.

Friday, June 8, 2012

Mangalontik Ipon

Mangalontik Ipon is an ritual of Batak Ancient that is flattened upper and lower teeth (incisors and canines) by using an iron fisted. This tradition as a sign of that a boy or girl has entered the adulthood and leaving childhood.

Teeth carved and smoothed with a file and then smeared the sap of baja (a type of black plants) while in be smoked, to relieve pain and prevent infection. After the teeth have been carved scalloped (marlontik), they undergo a period of abstinence (Robu), in order to restore dental health. They only eat certain foods and not allowed out of the house for seven days.

After they pass through "robu" time, the young man or young woman  --In the ancient until now on chewing betel applies to women and men-- is free to have betel chewing (marnapuran) in public. Their lips and teeth were flushed red as well.

Effect sap of baja,  near the edge of the gap between the teeth to be black. Colors red and black teeth like it was "the pride and charm of its own". If it is allowed marnapuran in public, they are considered an adult and entitled to visit to get acquainted and find a life partner.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Bakara Archive

Bakara Archive is written heritage of Kingdom Sisingamangaraja in Bakara, contains about: 
1. History of Batak Kingdom up to Sisingamangaraja as King.
2. Batak rejection of Si Bontar Mata (Batak call the Dutch as Si Bontar Mata, means the white eyes)  
3. An official reports and government documents of Sisingamangaraja XI in detail, completely and accurately the events along the year.
4. The Work Plan to rebuild and reconstruction the land of Bakara after war.

Bakara Archive is hand written using Batak script and language, wrote use qualified waterproof Chinese ink on foolscap size paper made in Italy. All the material sent to Bakara through over Aceh.  Batak script and language which was the archive of Sisingamangaraja XI.

There are 23 volumes, each + 5cm thick. Every books covered with buffalo leather and cotton.  Very neat, like a row set of Encyclopedia Book. The thickness of all the book around 1.5m.

The Archice rescued by Reverend Pilgram in 1884, then saved by Joustra and subsequently handed over Poortman in Voorburg Holland.

Betel Nut (Sirih)

Betel Nut or Sirih (Image, 2012)

Betel nut or Sirih is a type of green vines or climbing a tree trunk, in the Batak language, called:
1. Demban
2. Sirumatabulung
3. Napuran
4. Burangir 

Betel has a function and its benefits for the Batak tribe :
1. Customs. On customary marriages, dowry money submission (sinamot / tuhor) in the betel leaf is placed in a dish containing rice.
2. Respect. To welcome guests, and stay in touch with a dish and eat betel (marnapuran) together. Chewed betel leaf spread with lime after (hapur), areca and gambier.
3. Ritual. Prostration prayer (martonggo) to Ompu Mulajadi Nabolon, with the hands to worship, where the betel leaf is placed in the palm and fingers, folded betel leaves two closed top surface.
4. Herbal. Ingredients for taoar (herbal medicine).
5. Status. After the procession mangalontik Ipon, *) boy or girl must be given and betel chewing, a sign has entered a mature level.

In Batak mythology (turi-turian):
1. The Moon and the Sun.  The sun was struck on the lips of the Moon that flushed from chewing betel nut, so to have the charm, the sun was willing to swallow seven children of the sun.
2. Siboru Deang Parujar conquered  Naga 
Padoha the dragon, by betel chewing to attract him so the dragon follow her will.  

Napuran Tano Tano, betel creeper that grows in the soil (tano=ground). Small leaf size, smaller than the betel vine upward or tree.


Friday, March 9, 2012


Pelebegu, Pelbegu, Sipelebegu or Hasipelebeguan derived from the word "pele" and "begu". Pele means give offerings, while begu is spirit. Sipelebegu is the perpetrator the "gift offerings" to the good spirit in the form of food, drink or something to the tombs, a large tree, which is believed also to the sacred (sacred) or armature (spooky, scary). Pelebegu or Mamele Begu = function of providing offerings. Hasipelebeguan are things about giving or offering  (Pelean) to the spirits. "Pelean" is gifts or donations, derived from the word "lean" = give, given, convey.

Sipelebegu, Pelbegu, Hasipelebeguan not as a cult Batak, and not as a religion among the ancient Batak tribe. Ancient Batak tribes are said to be Sipelebegu because the sacrifice of activities aimed at offering to the spirits in a ritual.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Stone of Footstep Print of Gaja Puti

Stone of footstep print of  Gaja Puti
in Huta Ginjang, Bakara (Foto, 2006)

Stone of footstep print of Gaja Puti (White Elephant) found in Bakara. Located on the slopes, Huta Ginjang, Bakara, and there beside the springs emanating from the crack rocks. Until now, local people still use it as a source of drinking water.

In Ancient Batak this site is a place of "ritual" and drinking Gaja Puti. This footprint is not a work of sculpture, but is formed through the footrests Gaja Puti the "sacred" and the magic power of King Sisingamangaraja. So is the spring that flows through the fountain splashed after I plugged the treasures of King Sisingamangaraja Hujur Siringis / Hujur Sitonggo Mual with the request to Ompu Mulajadi Na Bolon, as the highest God of Batak.  

This Gaja Puti was one of the symbol royal succession from Raja Uti Mutiaraja (Kingdom Barus) to Sisingamangaraja of Bakara, to become a new rising Kingdom. White Elephant is an animal "special" and are considered "sacred", so it becomes a symbol, legend and mythology.  

According to Hindu belief, the white elephant is the king of elephants, and white elephant named Airawata is the god Indra's steeds. As for the Buddhist population of this animal as a symbol of knowledge and goodness, in connection with the dream of "white elephant" Queen Maya's mother before the birth of the Buddha.

Thailand is called the white elephant country, where the white elephant symbol of prosperity and happiness. For Myanmar (Burma Nations), the white elephant as a symbol of power and good fortune. In Indonesia, High plains Gayo, Aceh, is called the White Elephant World (Bumi Gajah Puteh), has its own tale and legend of the White Elephant.